The museum's research work is one of the most important facets of the museum; it manifests in the study of the natural environment of Latvia, in the processing and development of collections, in the creation of new exhibitions, and in providing environmental education. The museum's specialists are involved in the implementation of both local and international projects, as well as in the provision of educational and communication programmes of international conventions. Results of research work are announced in publications and reports given at various conferences. In the course of doing research, significant and scientifically valuable collections are created, for example: land snail shells of Latvia, capped mushrooms of Latvia, freshwater green algae of Latvia, butterflies/moths of Latvia, and more.

The museum's research activities serve the public interest, and at the same time, the museum’s scientific potential is also used in the shaping of public opinion and in the promotion of active engagement and responsible decision-making. Modern and interactive exhibitions, tours, educational museum programmes and lectures, interest groups, various environmental education activities and other events – these are ways in which, by using its collection, the museum can bring about qualitative interactions with a variety of target audiences.